Local marine habitats include a range of exposed and sheltered sandy beaches, rocky shores, rocky reefs, submerged pinnacles, small rocky islands, coral communities, riverine estuaries, coastal creeks and lakes, and a variety of sandy seabed habitats.
Marine life includes many species of dolphins, seabirds, turtles, fish, seaweeds, and invertebrates such as sponges, corals and anemones. Threatened marine species that occur in the Cape Byron Marine Park include little terns, grey nurse sharks and sea turtles. Humpback whales travel through the park on their annual migration.
Sites within the marine park that have been identified as particularly culturally significant to Indigenous people include Julian Rocks, Cocked Hat Rocks, Cape Byron and beaches around Broken Head.
Cape Byron Marine Park is a multiple-use marine park which includes protected areas where fishing and collecting are prohibited, and general-use areas which support both commercial and recreational fishing.